Rock treatment

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-- fiber-optic laser showed in treatment rock and clay data side its latent capacity comes 8 years, association of technology of American natural gas (GTI) was begun use high power laser to have petrosal cut and broken job. The sex of notional test and verify that finished to undertake for application of natural gas well recently studies, it used fiber-optic laser to penetrate in atmosphere and subterranean environment silicon is mixed character the rock of carbonate type. Research included to use the energy with inferior requirement to cross sandstone and lime cliff as a result, this improved sandstone to be near a narrow passage providing the only means of access to a certain place the flow of the fluid is characteristic, the imitate gas well that the result still includes to be opposite to be dug below subterranean pressure condition undertook bore. GTI used laser of high power for military use to gain the success on the technology in initiative research, after that, GTI shifted focus, begin to use the industrial laser that offers on the market. Study the result is certain, use industrial laser to excise rock, its energy level is OK rival with existing rigid step photograph. 1 fiber-optic laser has made the commercial equipment of the first selection in a lot of field application, these application included mining, open tunnel, cut, and the bore of rock and concrete. They can offer enough power completely to come cut rock, use light fine will undertake to further end rock essence of life decides. They have the following advantage: Socket efficiency is tall, quality of beam of light gets ameliorative, incident energy demand is inferior, in the meantime, integral volume is minorrer, this makes their flexibility and wear better. In addition, they need rarely or need to safeguard far from. Graph 1: In laser / of the minimum that receives in rock interaction experiment than can be worth. Used COIL laser, CO2, laser, Nd:YFiber-optic laser is opposite AG laser and mix into ytterbium shellfish thunder sandstone (BG) with lime cliff (Ls) undertake the experiment is being compared can (SE) the result when lowest. Use laser to excise petrosal process to use firm of American IPG Photonics (Oxford, massachusetts, www.


5 of Com) .

The initiative test result that fiber-optic laser gets ytterbium of 34kW mix into, gave out to excise the energy that rock place requires, and with the laser before this / rock data undertook contrast. What we are interested most is lime cliff and sandstone, because be in in well exercise, these two kinds of types are the commonnest store rock of collect layer target. Study the result gets, in the bore of kind of these two kinds of rock, fiber-optic laser and other laser already some data phases are taller than efficiency (graph 1) . Use focusing successive (CW) laser output, in the lime cliff of quarry, beam of light penetrated about 12 inches. Because to calcine gets,a narrow passage providing the only means of access to a certain place is, when about 825 ℃ , caO3 produces pyrolysis, turn into CaO and CO2. The discharge of the fluid gets the limitation of CaO, because the melting point of CaO is 2570 ° , cannot fuse. The successive laser light beam of use collimation also gained similar penetration in shellfish thunder sandstone, shellfish thunder sandstone is one kind main by quartz grain (the deposit cliff that SiO2) forms. In the process of sandstone of thunder of Laser Cutting shellfish, observe can the process with highest effect is hot division process, it happens in about 400 ° - 800 ℃ when 5. Laser light beam brings about temperature gradient taller, the differential heat of the thermal stress of corresponding generation and ore expands destroyed grain and grain between concatenate. Differ with lime cliff, grain of shellfish Lei Shiying transcends past the appointed time in temperature, can produce ore to fuse, because come off action, will cause the new fixed position to energy of beam of light, reduced cut efficiency thereby. To prevent this kind of situation, the heat in rock accumulates effect to be able to pass the energy that changes rock face to deliver rate and beam of light to come true to the irradiation time of cuttings. Energy delivers rate to be able to be passed measure power on average or irradiation time will control. When power of first-rate beam of light and irradiation level are using fiber-optic laser to handle Bei Lei, be beforehand given. Effective purify cuttings also is very important to restricting heat to accumulate effect. For example, will move with different geometrical graph kind the diameter that beam of light can raise aperture and beam of light is compared, this makes the irradiation that cuttings gets when leaving hole gets limitative, perhaps get far from irradiation. Laser of benefit consumed fine is in in the bore in Bei Lei one cubic metre foot practicable drilling program demonstrated in Bei Lei sandstone. Bore process is finished very well, it penetrated surrounding those who fill a fluid store collect layer petrosal steel well, leave for oil, natural gas and water gave a passageway. Because traditional bore method is right of rock structure and fluid passageway not reversible destroy and existing the discharge limitation of certain level. The experiment demonstrates in this in, appearance of collimation of beam of light will from 300 micron fiber-optic the change of primitive beam of light that shoots is for the diameter 1.

0 inches collimation beam of light. Pressure is 75 pounds / square inch compress air to be made an appointment with through leaving target rock 1.

0 of 0 inches of place.

Device of nozzle of 25 inches of stainless steel comes directional. Optical component and purify nozzle to be gotten on by park machine hand, contrail of machine hand motion is 1.

0 inches circle, rotate speed 22.

6 turn / cent. As the hole deepen, purify nozzle to go to li of shift. Total laser time 6.

When 0 minutes, have 1.

Interval of 0 minutes, collimation beam of light provides application continuously by this means. Power of beam of light is 3.

2KW, this is according to be opposite in foregoing research this kind of rock is mixed the optimal value that place of size of beam of light gives out. 7 penetrate when beam of light when the half length of block, beam of light is turned to, such, it can be shot from another square all along, thereby inter assemble. The sample that gotten hole penetrated 12 inches grow, occupying a story is current till the darkest a narrow passage providing the only means of access to a certain place that gets in Bei Lei. The diameter of point of both sides entry of 6 a narrow passage providing the only means of access to a certain place is about 2.

0 inches, the diameter with mid block is 1.

1 inch (the 2) that be like a graph. The 6 gotten bulk that are moved to remove material are 210cc. Undertake from different end panel cut can reduce the effect of side effect, at the same time very good imitate store the circumstance of collect layer infinity. Laser only from irradiation of a direction when Bei Lei block, observation arrived side effect, included what the change on thermal diffusion character and energy use up to increase, this is the reason that penetrates completely as a result of beam of light. This 6 phenomena ever were gone to by observation in the experiment in the past, it is probable because the factitious element on experimental design and sample geometry character is caused,be. Graph 2: The cross section of a narrow passage providing the only means of access to a certain place that laser produces. Pass is long it is 12 inches, diameter of every end panel is 2.

0 inches. The result explains: Here, to all laser / rock irradiation decided its are compared can (SE) , the energy that requires than the rock place that can be purify unit quality (KJ/cc) . In experiment of a narrow passage providing the only means of access to a certain place of thunder of 12 inches of shellfish observation arrives it is than can be worth 5.

5 KJ/cc. Use total laser energy is 1155 KJ or 0.

32 KWh. Compare scope of the can least value mediumly to Bei Lei from the experimental observation before from 4.

3 to 5.

2 KJ/cc, exterior irradiation time is 0.

5 seconds. 0 what the 8 tests later included many overlay to be together.

The irradiation with 5 long seconds, got thereby bigger, deeper aperture (the diameter is made an appointment with 1.

0 inches, hole depth is made an appointment with 1.

0 inches of) , than can be worth from 9.

2 to 13 KJ/cc. Of laser irradiation around osmotic measure along as incident as beam of light direction perpendicular rock surface undertakes, the result of around did not get any results quite. Hot change area arrives along radial development from wall of a narrow passage providing the only means of access to a certain place inside rock about 2.

00mm place. 7 this specifications, smaller than can be worth when, the major energy that shoots sample by use effectively at coming off action, is not hot change of characteristic to the rock near a narrow passage providing the only means of access to a certain place generation. Compare the both sides in bisect of a narrow passage providing the only means of access to a certain place similarly to undertake. The result makes clear, not mineral and fused go up in wall of a narrow passage providing the only means of access to a certain place. There is 15% to arrive along the permeability reading of the well after laser irradiation of 30% rise. 7 although be opposite,rock fluid flow rises characteristicly finite, but the process of laser bore won't have apparent destruction, this is a striking progress to traditional stiletto technique. Look into: Having the research of compensatory sex at present, the pressure test that includes a fluid to clean technology and site (more than 2000 pounds / square inch) . Subsequently measure included to design initiative the archetypal tool that makes a well downward, undertake lab and spot check, and field test has below the ground in work well. Anticipate from inside this job gotten benefit may be gone to by conformity more complex build the well is mixed in well application. The other bore that earth expects and cut application may be very fast cross other industry, for instance energy industry, mining industry, war industry, national security, aviation, build and demolish an industry. Brian C.

Gahan, p.


, it is aeriform technology institute, exploration makes central E&P technology recruit the manager of the ministry. CNC Milling